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Cornell University

Tata-Cornell Institute for Agriculture and Nutrition

Interacting with value chain actors: What to do when your research subjects have work to do

Levels of food loss are product
and value chain specific. An important first step in determining methods and
metrics to evaluate food loss of perishables was to identify the product (or products)
and map the value chains. The objective of my fieldwork this summer was to
identify a perishable vegetable important in the Indian food system and map the
value chains. Tomatoes were chosen because they are: perishable vegetables, good
sources of micronutrients (such as ascorbic acid), produced throughout the year
in India, and are widely consumed across regions. Working with a summer intern
from TERI School of Advanced Studies,
we spoke with different actors along the tomato value chain, from farm to retail,
to identify the major actors and activities.


Repacking tomatoes at a wholesale collection
center (Photo credit: Jocelyn Boiteau)

Learning how to conduct our work
during normal work hours for the different actors proved to be challenging, but
also provided important information and observations. Navigating this work
during work hours, I learned about different cultural norms, such as bohni time, as well as the challenges
and benefits of interviewing actors and observing activities as they are

Bohni, the first sale of the day

I first learned the concept of “bohni” during lunch at the TCI-TARINA New Delhi office
while discussing different markets around Delhi and negotiation practices. Bohni is a local custom where the first
sale of the day determines the luck for sales for the rest of the day. It would
be good luck for the seller if the first prospective buyer of the day makes a
purchase, and potentially bad luck for the day if the first prospective buyer
walks away without making a purchase. This lunchtime conversation proved to be
useful in my own work to understand a cultural norm that I would apply during
my market visits.

During a morning visit to the
Azadpur fruit and vegetable wholesale market in Delhi, I stopped by a vendor
selling vegetables on a cart nearby the market. The vendor was just setting up
his cart for the day, placing tomatoes into a pile for display. I asked him
about where he had purchased his tomatoes from and how he had decided which
tomatoes to purchase. After a minute of discussion he asked if I was planning
to buy anything. Being the first customer of the day, this was bohni
Now familiar with the custom, and wanting to contribute to good luck for
business that day, I purchased some tomatoes that we would later use in another
portion of my project, to measure the ascorbic acid content.


Tomatoes ready to be sold by vendor using open cart (Photo credit: Jocelyn Boiteau)

Interacting with value chain actors during
work hours

One of the more challenging
aspects of this summer work was engaging with value chain actors as they were
carrying out their activities. This was primarily a challenge when interacting
with wholesalers, shopkeepers, and vendors during visits to wholesale, weekly
and daily markets.

At weekly and daily markets and
other vendors, there was an expectation that we were customers. Therefore, when
approaching actors, we found it most helpful to give an elevator pitch to
briefly explain who we are and our objective to understand the tomato market
actors and activities. We tried to respect actors’ time by having prepared
brief and focused questions. We gauged their level of availability, speaking
with some actors a bit longer if they were willing to give us their time.
Actors had limited availability if they were setting up their stalls at the
beginning of the day, or when the market was ongoing and they were engaging
with customers.

Wholesalers who sell tomatoes in
25-30 kg crates did not view us as prospective customers. They were often able to
give us the most time because there were a number of workers hired to carry out
the wholesale activities, such as unloading and loading crates. The wholesale
operators were more available to speak with us and describe their business
operation, where and how they source tomatoes, the activities of their workers,
and the different buyers. Interviewing wholesalers, as activities were ongoing,
was helpful in that we could ask about specific activities in real-time to
better understand the process of moving tomatoes from one point of the value
chain to the next.


Observing the tomato wholesale
market in Kolar, Karnataka with TERI intern Sindhuja Shukla (left) and
Tata-Cornell Scholar Jocelyn Boiteau (right). (Photo credit: Mr. Asgar)

Observing activities along the value chain

Carrying out visits during
working hours allowed us to directly observe the activities at different points
along the value chain. Through direct observation, we became aware of the
nuanced activities. For example, tomatoes at wholesale markets are repacked
into different crates. Tomatoes may be sorted out during the repacking process,
either collected into a lower grade collection basket or discarded onto the
ground. After crates are nearly full from the repacking, the best looking
tomatoes are placed on the top layer. These observations enriched our
understanding of the activities that value chain actors mentioned. When
conducting direct observation it was important to keep our eyes and ears open
not only to absorb the ongoing activities but also to make sure we were not in
the way of the activities themselves.  

The experience of collecting
qualitative data through interviews and observations during work hours along
the value chain provided important insights that will inform the design and
timing of surveys, interviews and other data collection tools. Collecting certain
data during work hours can yield important insights into the nuances of
activities and decision-making, and can answer questions on-site as activities
are occurring. However, because interruptions and distractions are likely to
occur while interviewing during work hours, certain data collection tools, such
as in-depth interviews, would best take place outside of busy work periods when
the value chain actor has time to give full attention. Ultimately, through
careful planning, a strong research design will strike the balance of
respecting participants’ time and collecting the necessary data for the study.

By Jocelyn Boiteau

Boiteau is a PhD Student and a Tata-Cornell Scholar in
the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell University. Her
research focuses on food loss of perishable vegetables from a food
and nutrition security perspective.