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Cornell University

Tata-Cornell Institute for Agriculture and Nutrition

Pakistan and India’s Common Enemy: Malnutrition

Farmland in Pakistan

In national and international media, Pakistan and India are often portrayed as threats to each other, but less attention is paid to a threat both countries have in common: malnutrition.

According to the World Food Programme, malnutrition costs Pakistan $7.6 billion annually, or roughly 3% of the country’s GDP. On the other hand, according to various estimates, the cost of malnourishment for India is around $40 billion, or 2.5% of GDP. The largest cost component for both countries is loss of life—especially children—due to severe malnutrition. This is followed by the economic costs of malnutrition-related diseases among children, such as diarrhea and respiratory diseases. These costs also include loss of productivity and deficits in mental and physical development that arise due to stunting, wasting, anemia, and iodine deficiency.

Comparing malnutrition in the Pakistani province of Punjab and the adjacent Indian states of Rajasthan and Punjab reveals several commonalities and differences that can inform public policy in both countries.


While 31.5% of children under 5 are stunted in Pakistan’s Punjab, compared to 24.5% in Indian Punjab and 31.8% in Rajasthan, a district-level examination shows that the Pakistani districts bordering Indian Punjab have lower stunting rates than the districts adjoining the Rajasthan border. This shows that stunting is a common issue that transcends national borders. The higher rates of stunting in Southern Pakistan-Punjab and Rajasthan are especially a cause of concern.

Map showing the prevalence of stunting in Indian Punjab, Rajasthan, and Pakistani Punjab

See Tables below for data in table form. Data source: NFHS-5 and MICS-2018

For both Indian and Pakistani Punjab, the worst performing districts are in the south. The districts with the highest prevalence of stunting among children under 5 in each administrative area are as follows:

Worst 5 districts in terms of stunting for children under 5
Punjab, Pakistan Rajasthan, India Punjab, India
Rajanpur – 47.4% Baran – 46% Mansa- 36.6%
D.G. Khan – 46.4% Dholpur- 45.7% Fazilka – 35.9%
R.Y. Khan – 46.1 % Banswara – 44.6% Sri Muktsar Sahib – 35%
Lodhran – 44% Jalore – 44.3% Barnala – 33.8%
Bahawalnagar – 39.4% Bharatpur – 40.3% Fatehgarh – 30%


In terms of wasting, Rajasthan stands out as the worst affected of all three administrative areas. The prevalence of wasting in the state is 16.8% compared to 10.6% in Indian Punjab and 7.5% in Pakistani Punjab.

Map showing the prevalence of wasting in Indian Punjab, Rajasthan, and Pakistani Punjab

See Tables below for data in table form. Data source: NFHS-5 and MICS-2018

Worst 5 districts in terms of wasting for children under 5
Punjab, Pakistan Rajasthan, India Punjab, India
Khushab – 12.4% Jhalawar – 29% Bathinda – 15.4%
Khanewal – 9.7% Karauli – 26.6% Sri Muktsar Sahib – 13.6%
Lodhran – 9.3% Bikaner – 25.6% Ferozepur – 12.9%
M.B. Din – 9.3% Jaisalmer – 25% Kapurthala – 12.8%
D.G. Khan – 8.9% Ganganagar – 24.9% Mansa – 12.1%

Wasting is caused by multiple factors that include poverty, maternal malnutrition, low birthweight, poor feeding and care practices, and food insecurity. High levels of child wasting in Rajasthan are attributable to dry and arid geography with small unproductive land holdings that result in food insecure households. Some of the worst-affected districts are in the Thar desert bordering Pakistan. Both the Pakistani and Indian Punjabs do relatively better in terms of child wasting due to a higher level of agricultural productivity fueled by extensive irrigation systems.


The prevalence of underweight among children in Indian Punjab, Rajasthan, and Pakistani Punjab depict such similar trends that it is hard to identify the border separating the countries. The adjoining districts are mirror images of each other. The southern districts of Pakistani Punjab and the adjoining areas of southwestern Rajasthan are among the worst affected. The prevalence of underweight children is 16.9% in Indian Punjab, 27.6% in Rajasthan, and 21.2% in Pakistani Punjab.

Map showing the prevalence of underweight among children in Indian Punjab, Rajasthan, and Pakistani Punjab

See Tables below for data in table form. Data source: NFHS-5 and MICS-2018

The harsh living conditions of the desert areas of Rajasthan and the southern districts of Pakistani Punjab could potentially explain such high levels of underweight children in the region.

Worst 5 districts in terms of underweight for children under 5
Punjab, Pakistan Rajasthan, India Punjab, India
Rajanpur – 33.6% Baran – 40.2% Sri Muktsar Sahib – 30.7%
R.Y. Khan – 33.3% Banswara – 38.7% Bathinda – 23.8%
D.G. Khan – 32% Jhalawar – 38.1% S.A.S. Nagar – 23%
Bahawalnagar – 26.8% Karauli – 37.3% Mansa – 22.7%
Bahawalpur – 26.6% Jalore – 36.5% Faridkot – 20.7%

Other Indicators

Some of the other indicators for child malnutrition include the prevalence of overweight children and the percentage of children that are eating the minimum acceptable diet. Some districts like Lodhran in Pakistani Punjab, Ganganagar and Dholpur in Rajasthan, and Barnala in Indian Punjab exhibit the triple burden of malnutrition among children, with a high prevalence of undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiency.

Map showing the prevalence of overweight among children in Indian Punjab, Rajasthan, and Pakistani Punjab

See Tables below for data in table form. Data source: NFHS-5 and MICS-2018

Agricultural Linkages with Nutrition

Agriculture is an important underlying factor of malnutrition. There is a distinct wheat-rice belt that covers most of Indian Punjab and extends into the northeastern districts of Pakistani Punjab. These districts perform relatively well in terms of child malnutrition indicators. The western regions of Pakistani Punjab have a greater emphasis on wheat alone, whereas the southern districts are classified as wheat-cotton belt. The western and southern districts of the province are relatively worse off in terms of nutritional outcomes compared to the northeastern wheat-rice belt. Rajasthan has a diverse range of cropping patterns, with a greater prevalence of millet and pulse belts.

Map of cropping patterns across Indian Punjab, Rajasthan, and Pakistani Punjab

See Tables below for data in table form. Data source: ICRISAT and Pakistan Bureau of Statistics

Districts that are irrigated more extensively also do better in terms of malnutrition outcomes, with lesser stunting and underweight prevalence. There seems to be a correlation between higher agricultural production and improved nutrition outcomes.

There also seems to be a direct correlation between the prevalence of undernutrition and the availability of livestock. Districts in the southern parts of Pakistani Punjab and the western districts of Rajasthan have a lower distribution of goats, buffaloes, and cattle compared to Indian Punjab and the northern districts of Pakistani Punjab. These districts also perform worse in terms of stunting, wasting, and undernutrition. These districts are characterized by a harsh desert environment and are generally poorer compared to more agriculturally productive districts.

Map showing the percentage of irrigation in India and Pakistan, with Punjab being the most widely irrigated province in Pakistan, and most of India being highly irrigated other than stretches of land in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Manipur and Nagaland states.

Data source: FAO-Aquastat

Map showing the distribution of goats per sq. km in India and Pakistan, with the highest concentrations in Punjab and Sindh provinces in Pakistan, and West Bengal state in India

Data source: FAOSTAT

Map showing the distribution of buffalos per sq. km in India and Pakistan, with the highest concentrations in Punjab province in Pakistan and Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh states in India

Data source: FAOSTAT

Map showing the distribution of cattle per sq. km in India and Pakistan, with the highest concentrations in Punjab and Sindh provinces in Pakistan, and West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar, Assam and Uttar Pradesh states in India

Data source: FAOSTAT

Nutrition policy interventions on both sides of the border

Since both Pakistan and India face similar malnutrition issues, they could learn from each other’s successes and failures in addressing this problem.

Some of the current programs aimed at nutrition in Pakistan include the Food Fortification Program (FFP), Universal Salt Iodization, and the Benazir Income Support Program (BISP) also known as the Ehsaas program. FFP and Universal Salt Iodization are aimed at addressing issues of micronutrient deficiency and BISP provides direct cash transfers. Furthermore, utility stores across the country provide subsidies on several food items, including wheat flour, cooking oil, pulses, rice, and sugar. There is also a network of Lady Health Workers (LHW) that plays an important role in maternal and child health, especially in rural areas.

Most of the maternal, child health, and nutrition interventions in India are carried out under the umbrella of POSHAN Abhiyaan or the National Nutrition Mission, which is working towards the goal of a malnutrition-free India by 2022. This larger program falls under the ministry of Ministry of Women and Child Development and has a number of different components. The aim of POSHAN is to target the 1,000-day window of childbirth and early childhood nutrition that can significantly affect later quality of life. POSHAN was initially launched in a single district of Rajasthan—Jhunjhunu—and was later scaled up across the country by consolidating various programs like the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), which has additional components like the Midday Meal Scheme, Supplementary Nutrition Program (SNP) and Anganwadi services.

The ICDS provides supplementary food to all children below 6 years of age, as well as pregnant and new mothers, to help with crucial additional calories and micronutrients. Under the SNP, hot-cooked meals are provided to children between ages 3 and 6 for 300 days based on their malnutrition levels. SNP represents the largest share of ICDS spending. Anganwadi workers provide supplementary nutrition and nutrition education to expectant and nursing mothers and children under 6. In financial year 2021-22, the Government of India restructured programs like ICDS and POSHAN into Saksham Anganwadi and Poshan 2.0 in an attempt to merge nutrition-related initiatives and generate improved nutrition outcomes.

As both Pakistan and India face a common dilemma in the form of malnutrition, it is important for both countries to learn from each other’s success stories and push forward highly effective policy interventions on both sides of the border.

Currently, Pakistan does not have any major school meal programs that help to address malnutrition. Only recently, the education minister launched a free lunch meal program in 100 schools across Islamabad that is predicted to feed at least 25,000 school children. However, the scale of this program is quite small and targets one of the most affluent areas of the country.

School meal programs can go a long way in addressing child malnutrition in developing countries, and are needed in a country like Pakistan, where child malnutrition is a major problem. In 2021, the annual budget of the midday meal program in India was INR 10,234 crores, which is almost USD $1.3 billion. Since Pakistan’s population is 6 times smaller, it is estimated that a similar program in Pakistan would cost between USD $200-$300 million. This is quite feasible if implemented with the support of development partners like the World Bank, USAID, and DFID.

Similarly, Pakistan has an extensive network of basic health units (BHUs) and rural health centers (RHC) that could serve as a starting point to provide hot-cooked meals to children under 6 and pregnant and new mothers, as the Anganwadi centers do in India. However, since the Anganwadi centers are established at the village level, a similar village-level infrastructure would need to be developed in Pakistan in the long run.

India too could learn from Pakistan’s success stories, such as the conditional-cash-transfer-based BISP, which provides cash to one woman in every poor household of the country. The program has significant positive effects on child nutrition, with improved stunting, wasting, and underweight outcomes. The use of technology to improve health and nutrition outcomes, especially in the province of Punjab, has also proved to be a great success story in the country. Such initiatives can be scaled up in other regions of South Asia as well.

A Learning Opportunity

As both Pakistan and India face a common dilemma in the form of malnutrition, it is important for both countries to learn from each other’s success stories and push forward highly effective policy interventions on both sides of the border. Those policy instruments might directly target malnutrition food supplements and cash transfers, or might address it indirectly through increased agricultural productivity or even economic transformation, which leads to poverty reduction. In any case, some policy solutions could be replicated from one country to the other, with or without adjustments. It is in best interests of each to identify those interventions that proved successful and implement them on their own territory.

Ali Ilahi is a research support specialist at TCI.

Milorad Plavsic is TCI’s manager of strategic initiatives.

Featured image: An expanse of farmland in Pakistan. (Photo by Ayesha Ch on Unsplash)


Prevalence of stunting among children under 5 in Indian Punjab, Rajasthan, and Pakistani Punjab

Country State District Stunting
Pakistan Punjab Attock 22.6
Pakistan Punjab Bahawalnagar 39.4
Pakistan Punjab Bahawalpur 36.8
Pakistan Punjab Bhakkar 36.8
Pakistan Punjab Chakwal 23.7
Pakistan Punjab Chiniot 36
Pakistan Punjab Dera Ghazi Khan 46.4
Pakistan Punjab Faisalabad 28.8
Pakistan Punjab Gujranwala 24.7
Pakistan Punjab Gujrat 20
Pakistan Punjab Hafizabad 25.8
Pakistan Punjab Jhang 35.1
Pakistan Punjab Jhelum 21.1
Pakistan Punjab Kasur 32.7
Pakistan Punjab Khanewal 36.3
Pakistan Punjab Khushab 33.3
Pakistan Punjab Lahore 24.1
Pakistan Punjab Layyah 29.6
Pakistan Punjab Lodhran 44
Pakistan Punjab Mandi Bahauddin 24.3
Pakistan Punjab Mianwali 26.9
Pakistan Punjab Multan 35.6
Pakistan Punjab Muzaffargarh 39.2
Pakistan Punjab Nankana Sahib 29
Pakistan Punjab Narowal 23.5
Pakistan Punjab Okara 31.2
Pakistan Punjab Pakpattan 36.3
Pakistan Punjab Rahim Yar Khan 46.1
Pakistan Punjab Rajanpur 47.4
Pakistan Punjab Rawalpindi 22.2
Pakistan Punjab Sahiwal 30.4
Pakistan Punjab Sargodha 28.3
Pakistan Punjab Sheikhupura 27.9
Pakistan Punjab Sialkot 24.8
Pakistan Punjab Toba Tek Singh 29.8
Pakistan Punjab Vehari 33
India Rajasthan Ajmer 22.3
India Rajasthan Alwar 33.9
India Rajasthan Banswara 44.6
India Rajasthan Baran 46
India Rajasthan Barmer 39.1
India Rajasthan Bharatpur 40.3
India Rajasthan Bhilwara 22.6
India Rajasthan Bikaner 22.8
India Rajasthan Bundi 30
India Rajasthan Chittorgarh 31.4
India Rajasthan Churu 27.1
India Rajasthan Dausa 37.7
India Rajasthan Dholpur 45.7
India Rajasthan Dungarpur 31.4
India Rajasthan Ganganagar 24.5
India Rajasthan Hanumangarh 24.2
India Rajasthan Jaipur 25
India Rajasthan Jaisalmer 25.5
India Rajasthan Jalore 44.3
India Rajasthan Jhalawar 34
India Rajasthan Jhunjhunu 20.9
India Rajasthan Jodhpur 32.6
India Rajasthan Karauli 37.6
India Rajasthan Kota 29.5
India Rajasthan Nagaur 31.5
India Rajasthan Pali 35.9
India Rajasthan Pratapgarh 29
India Rajasthan Rajsamand 30.3
India Rajasthan Sawai Madhopur 26.9
India Rajasthan Sikar 23.1
India Rajasthan Sirohi 30.7
India Rajasthan Tonk 33.1
India Rajasthan Udaipur 34
India Punjab Amritsar 19.4
India Punjab Barnala 33.8
India Punjab Bathinda 23
India Punjab Faridkot 28.1
India Punjab Fatehgarh Sahib 30
India Punjab Fazilka 35.9
India Punjab Ferozepur 30
India Punjab Gurdaspur 25.1
India Punjab Hoshiarpur 19.3
India Punjab Jalandhar 24.8
India Punjab Kapurthala 24.6
India Punjab Ludhiana 22.1
India Punjab Mansa 36.6
India Punjab Moga 22
India Punjab Pathankot 22.1
India Punjab Patiala 20.3
India Punjab Rupnagar 15.1
India Punjab S.A.S. Nagar 26.2
India Punjab Sangrur 23.4
India Punjab Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar 17.9
India Punjab Sri Muktsar Sahib 35
India Punjab Tarn Taran 23.8

Prevalence of wasting among children under 5 in Indian Punjab, Rajasthan, and Pakistani Punjab

Country State District Wasting
Pakistan Punjab Attock 5.6
Pakistan Punjab Bahawalnagar 7.4
Pakistan Punjab Bahawalpur 8.6
Pakistan Punjab Bhakkar 8.3
Pakistan Punjab Chakwal 8
Pakistan Punjab Chiniot 7.5
Pakistan Punjab Dera Ghazi Khan 8.9
Pakistan Punjab Faisalabad 5.8
Pakistan Punjab Gujranwala 6.8
Pakistan Punjab Gujrat 4.7
Pakistan Punjab Hafizabad 7.8
Pakistan Punjab Jhang 8.9
Pakistan Punjab Jhelum 5.1
Pakistan Punjab Kasur 9
Pakistan Punjab Khanewal 9.7
Pakistan Punjab Khushab 12.4
Pakistan Punjab Lahore 7.3
Pakistan Punjab Layyah 7
Pakistan Punjab Lodhran 9.3
Pakistan Punjab Mandi Bahauddin 9.3
Pakistan Punjab Mianwali 8.2
Pakistan Punjab Multan 7.4
Pakistan Punjab Muzaffargarh 6.1
Pakistan Punjab Nankana Sahib 5.5
Pakistan Punjab Narowal 7.1
Pakistan Punjab Okara 5.1
Pakistan Punjab Pakpattan 6.8
Pakistan Punjab Rahim Yar Khan 8.6
Pakistan Punjab Rajanpur 8.7
Pakistan Punjab Rawalpindi 7.3
Pakistan Punjab Sahiwal 4.8
Pakistan Punjab Sargodha 7.8
Pakistan Punjab Sheikhupura 8
Pakistan Punjab Sialkot 7.6
Pakistan Punjab Toba Tek Singh 7.9
Pakistan Punjab Vehari 7.9
India Rajasthan Ajmer 20
India Rajasthan Alwar 15.6
India Rajasthan Banswara 17.3
India Rajasthan Baran 21.3
India Rajasthan Barmer 11.5
India Rajasthan Bharatpur 12.2
India Rajasthan Bhilwara 17.4
India Rajasthan Bikaner 25.6
India Rajasthan Bundi 19.6
India Rajasthan Chittorgarh 14.6
India Rajasthan Churu 16.5
India Rajasthan Dausa 20.7
India Rajasthan Dholpur 13.7
India Rajasthan Dungarpur 15.6
India Rajasthan Ganganagar 24.9
India Rajasthan Hanumangarh 19.8
India Rajasthan Jaipur 14.6
India Rajasthan Jaisalmer 25
India Rajasthan Jalore 12.1
India Rajasthan Jhalawar 29
India Rajasthan Jhunjhunu 13.9
India Rajasthan Jodhpur 13.3
India Rajasthan Karauli 26.6
India Rajasthan Kota 20.8
India Rajasthan Nagaur 16.2
India Rajasthan Pali 18.3
India Rajasthan Pratapgarh 24.9
India Rajasthan Rajsamand 16.6
India Rajasthan Sawai Madhopur 22
India Rajasthan Sikar 12.8
India Rajasthan Sirohi 16.4
India Rajasthan Tonk 18.1
India Rajasthan Udaipur 8.6
India Punjab Amritsar 11.9
India Punjab Barnala 9.4
India Punjab Bathinda 15.4
India Punjab Faridkot 10.3
India Punjab Fatehgarh Sahib 7.1
India Punjab Fazilka 9.5
India Punjab Ferozepur 12.9
India Punjab Gurdaspur 9.5
India Punjab Hoshiarpur 11.5
India Punjab Jalandhar 10.3
India Punjab Kapurthala 12.8
India Punjab Ludhiana 5.9
India Punjab Mansa 12.1
India Punjab Moga 12
India Punjab Pathankot 10.3
India Punjab Patiala 9.9
India Punjab Rupnagar 9.1
India Punjab S.A.S. Nagar 10.7
India Punjab Sangrur 10.4
India Punjab Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar 12
India Punjab Sri Muktsar Sahib 13.6
India Punjab Tarn Taran 11.3

Prevalence of underweight among children under 5 in Indian Punjab, Rajasthan, and Pakistani Punjab

Country State District Underweight
Pakistan Punjab Attock 15.1
Pakistan Punjab Bahawalnagar 26.8
Pakistan Punjab Bahawalpur 26.6
Pakistan Punjab Bhakkar 26.3
Pakistan Punjab Chakwal 15.1
Pakistan Punjab Chiniot 18.7
Pakistan Punjab Dera Ghazi Khan 32
Pakistan Punjab Faisalabad 19.5
Pakistan Punjab Gujranwala 14.4
Pakistan Punjab Gujrat 12.4
Pakistan Punjab Hafizabad 17.1
Pakistan Punjab Jhang 23.4
Pakistan Punjab Jhelum 13.2
Pakistan Punjab Kasur 21.5
Pakistan Punjab Khanewal 25.4
Pakistan Punjab Khushab 24.4
Pakistan Punjab Lahore 18.3
Pakistan Punjab Layyah 16.7
Pakistan Punjab Lodhran 26.9
Pakistan Punjab Mandi Bahauddin 18.1
Pakistan Punjab Mianwali 20.3
Pakistan Punjab Multan 22
Pakistan Punjab Muzaffargarh 24.4
Pakistan Punjab Nankana Sahib 18
Pakistan Punjab Narowal 16.8
Pakistan Punjab Okara 17
Pakistan Punjab Pakpattan 25.7
Pakistan Punjab Rahim Yar Khan 33.3
Pakistan Punjab Rajanpur 33.6
Pakistan Punjab Rawalpindi 13.4
Pakistan Punjab Sahiwal 17.9
Pakistan Punjab Sargodha 21.6
Pakistan Punjab Sheikhupura 19.3
Pakistan Punjab Sialkot 16.9
Pakistan Punjab Toba Tek Singh 22.1
Pakistan Punjab Vehari 23
India Rajasthan Ajmer 23.1
India Rajasthan Alwar 24
India Rajasthan Banswara 38.7
India Rajasthan Baran 40.2
India Rajasthan Barmer 31.7
India Rajasthan Bharatpur 29.1
India Rajasthan Bhilwara 23.5
India Rajasthan Bikaner 28.5
India Rajasthan Bundi 29.1
India Rajasthan Chittorgarh 25.9
India Rajasthan Churu 23.4
India Rajasthan Dausa 33.5
India Rajasthan Dholpur 31.3
India Rajasthan Dungarpur 25.9
India Rajasthan Ganganagar 26.1
India Rajasthan Hanumangarh 21.3
India Rajasthan Jaipur 20.8
India Rajasthan Jaisalmer 31.7
India Rajasthan Jalore 36.5
India Rajasthan Jhalawar 38.1
India Rajasthan Jhunjhunu 19.6
India Rajasthan Jodhpur 25.4
India Rajasthan Karauli 37.3
India Rajasthan Kota 26.4
India Rajasthan Nagaur 26.2
India Rajasthan Pali 35.9
India Rajasthan Pratapgarh 31.8
India Rajasthan Rajsamand 23.7
India Rajasthan Sawai Madhopur 24.2
India Rajasthan Sikar 18.3
India Rajasthan Sirohi 31.2
India Rajasthan Tonk 28.2
India Rajasthan Udaipur 26.6
India Punjab Amritsar 11.2
India Punjab Barnala 16.5
India Punjab Bathinda 23.8
India Punjab Faridkot 20.7
India Punjab Fatehgarh Sahib 18.2
India Punjab Fazilka 20.2
India Punjab Ferozepur 22
India Punjab Gurdaspur 15.3
India Punjab Hoshiarpur 12.4
India Punjab Jalandhar 16.7
India Punjab Kapurthala 19.2
India Punjab Ludhiana 12.4
India Punjab Mansa 22.7
India Punjab Moga 16.8
India Punjab Pathankot 10.8
India Punjab Patiala 16.9
India Punjab Rupnagar 15.3
India Punjab S.A.S. Nagar 23
India Punjab Sangrur 18.1
India Punjab Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar 11.2
India Punjab Sri Muktsar Sahib 30.7
India Punjab Tarn Taran 14.4

Prevalence of overweight among children under 5 in Indian Punjab, Rajasthan, and Pakistani Punjab

Country State District Overweight
Pakistan Punjab Attock 2.3
Pakistan Punjab Bahawalnagar 1.7
Pakistan Punjab Bahawalpur 2.2
Pakistan Punjab Bhakkar 0.9
Pakistan Punjab Chakwal 3.3
Pakistan Punjab Chiniot 2.3
Pakistan Punjab Dera Ghazi Khan 1.2
Pakistan Punjab Faisalabad 2.1
Pakistan Punjab Gujranwala 2.6
Pakistan Punjab Gujrat 1.8
Pakistan Punjab Hafizabad 1.1
Pakistan Punjab Jhang 1.5
Pakistan Punjab Jhelum 2.5
Pakistan Punjab Kasur 1.5
Pakistan Punjab Khanewal 1.3
Pakistan Punjab Khushab 1.1
Pakistan Punjab Lahore 1.9
Pakistan Punjab Layyah 1.7
Pakistan Punjab Lodhran 4.5
Pakistan Punjab Mandi Bahauddin 2.6
Pakistan Punjab Mianwali 1.3
Pakistan Punjab Multan 1.5
Pakistan Punjab Muzaffargarh 2.2
Pakistan Punjab Nankana Sahib 2
Pakistan Punjab Narowal 1.4
Pakistan Punjab Okara 1.3
Pakistan Punjab Pakpattan 1.6
Pakistan Punjab Rahim Yar Khan 1.2
Pakistan Punjab Rajanpur 1.5
Pakistan Punjab Rawalpindi 3.3
Pakistan Punjab Sahiwal 1.5
Pakistan Punjab Sargodha 1.2
Pakistan Punjab Sheikhupura 4
Pakistan Punjab Sialkot 3
Pakistan Punjab Toba Tek Singh 2.6
Pakistan Punjab Vehari 1.8
India Rajasthan Ajmer 2.8
India Rajasthan Alwar 4.1
India Rajasthan Banswara 2.1
India Rajasthan Baran 3.2
India Rajasthan Barmer 2.2
India Rajasthan Bharatpur 5.1
India Rajasthan Bhilwara 2.7
India Rajasthan Bikaner 3.4
India Rajasthan Bundi 1
India Rajasthan Chittorgarh 1
India Rajasthan Churu 4
India Rajasthan Dausa 2.2
India Rajasthan Dholpur 5.6
India Rajasthan Dungarpur 2.5
India Rajasthan Ganganagar 4.5
India Rajasthan Hanumangarh 3.9
India Rajasthan Jaipur 2
India Rajasthan Jaisalmer 2.7
India Rajasthan Jalore 3
India Rajasthan Jhalawar 1.4
India Rajasthan Jhunjhunu 5.9
India Rajasthan Jodhpur 5.5
India Rajasthan Karauli 2.3
India Rajasthan Kota 3.3
India Rajasthan Nagaur 3.7
India Rajasthan Pali 0.9
India Rajasthan Pratapgarh 2.9
India Rajasthan Rajsamand 4.5
India Rajasthan Sawai Madhopur 3.4
India Rajasthan Sikar 4.1
India Rajasthan Sirohi 2.5
India Rajasthan Tonk 4.8
India Rajasthan Udaipur 1.8
India Punjab Amritsar 6.3
India Punjab Barnala 6.1
India Punjab Bathinda 1.2
India Punjab Faridkot 2.7
India Punjab Fatehgarh Sahib 4.6
India Punjab Fazilka 4.2
India Punjab Ferozepur 2.9
India Punjab Gurdaspur 6.5
India Punjab Hoshiarpur 3.8
India Punjab Jalandhar 1.8
India Punjab Kapurthala 4.9
India Punjab Ludhiana 6.4
India Punjab Mansa 3.1
India Punjab Moga 4.9
India Punjab Pathankot 7.8
India Punjab Patiala 0.4
India Punjab Rupnagar 2.5
India Punjab S.A.S. Nagar 4.6
India Punjab Sangrur 2.7
India Punjab Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar 6.6
India Punjab Sri Muktsar Sahib 2.8
India Punjab Tarn Taran 4.5

Cropping patterns across Indian Punjab, Rajasthan, and Pakistani Punjab

Country State District Cropping Pattern
Pakistan Punjab Attock Wheat
Pakistan Punjab Bahawalnagar Wheat-Cotton
Pakistan Punjab Bahawalpur Wheat-Cotton
Pakistan Punjab Bhakkar Wheat
Pakistan Punjab Chakwal Wheat
Pakistan Punjab Chiniot Wheat
Pakistan Punjab Dera Ghazi Khan Wheat-Cotton
Pakistan Punjab Faisalabad Wheat-Sugarcane
Pakistan Punjab Gujranwala Wheat-Rice
Pakistan Punjab Gujrat Wheat-Rice
Pakistan Punjab Hafizabad Wheat-Rice
Pakistan Punjab Jhang Wheat
Pakistan Punjab Jhelum Wheat-Other
Pakistan Punjab Kasur Wheat-Rice
Pakistan Punjab Khanewal Wheat-Cotton
Pakistan Punjab Khushab Wheat
Pakistan Punjab Lahore Wheat-Rice
Pakistan Punjab Layyah Wheat
Pakistan Punjab Lodhran Wheat-Cotton
Pakistan Punjab Mandi Bahauddin Wheat-Rice
Pakistan Punjab Mianwali Wheat
Pakistan Punjab Multan Wheat-Cotton
Pakistan Punjab Muzaffargarh Wheat-Cotton
Pakistan Punjab Nankana Sahib Wheat-Rice
Pakistan Punjab Narowal Wheat-Rice
Pakistan Punjab Okara Wheat-Rice
Pakistan Punjab Pakpattan Wheat-Maize
Pakistan Punjab Rahim Yar Khan Wheat-Cotton
Pakistan Punjab Rajanpur Wheat-Cotton
Pakistan Punjab Rawalpindi Wheat-Maize
Pakistan Punjab Sahiwal Wheat-Cotton
Pakistan Punjab Sargodha Wheat
Pakistan Punjab Sheikhupura Wheat-Rice
Pakistan Punjab Sialkot Wheat-Rice
Pakistan Punjab Toba Tek Singh Wheat
Pakistan Punjab Vehari Wheat-Cotton
India Rajasthan Ajmer Pulses
India Rajasthan Alwar Oilseed
India Rajasthan Banswara Oilseed
India Rajasthan Baran Oilseed
India Rajasthan Barmer Millet
India Rajasthan Bharatpur Oilseed
India Rajasthan Bhilwara Pulses
India Rajasthan Bikaner Pulses
India Rajasthan Bundi Wheat-Pulses
India Rajasthan Chittorgarh Wheat
India Rajasthan Churu Pulses
India Rajasthan Dausa Millet
India Rajasthan Dholpur Millet
India Rajasthan Dungarpur Wheat-Maize
India Rajasthan Ganganagar Other
India Rajasthan Hanumangarh Wheat-Cotton
India Rajasthan Jaipur Millet
India Rajasthan Jaisalmer Other
India Rajasthan Jalore Millet
India Rajasthan Jhalawar Wheat
India Rajasthan Jhunjhunu Millet
India Rajasthan Jodhpur Millet
India Rajasthan Karauli Millet
India Rajasthan Kota Pulses
India Rajasthan Nagaur Pulses
India Rajasthan Pali Pulses
India Rajasthan Pratapgarh Oilseed
India Rajasthan Rajsamand Maize
India Rajasthan Sawai Madhopur Millet
India Rajasthan Sikar Millet
India Rajasthan Sirohi Other
India Rajasthan Tonk Pulses
India Rajasthan Udaipur Wheat-Maize
India Punjab Amritsar Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Barnala Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Bathinda Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Faridkot Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Fatehgarh Sahib Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Fazilka Wheat
India Punjab Ferozepur Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Gurdaspur Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Hoshiarpur Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Jalandhar Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Kapurthala Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Ludhiana Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Mansa Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Moga Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Pathankot Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Patiala Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Rupnagar Wheat-Rice
India Punjab S.A.S. Nagar Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Sangrur Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Sri Muktsar Sahib Wheat-Rice
India Punjab Tarn Taran Wheat-Rice